Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. It is noteworthy that it is the second most common type of cancer in men all over the world. Age is a significant risk for prostate cancer. Researches; It shows that 60 percent of men over the age of 65 have prostate cancer, that is, at least one of two men has met this disease.
Providing information about the disease due to Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, Acıbadem University Maslak Hospital Minimally Invasive and Robotic Urology Department Head Prof. Dr. Ali Rıza Kural states that prostate cancer is one of the diseases whose incidence increases with the aging of the world population. If not detected early, it can lead to fatal consequences. In fact, it ranks 5th in cancer-related deaths today.
3 IMPORTANT REASONS INCREASING RISK!
There are factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer. Among them, genetic risk draws attention. If the father or male relatives on the paternal side have prostate cancer, the rate decreases to younger ages. Racial characteristics are also an important factor in terms of risk. While prostate cancer is more common in Western Europe and the USA, it is less common in Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Another result that turned out to be a higher incidence of prostate cancer in blacks. Although genetic and racial characteristics cannot be changed, there is another risk factor that people can change in prostate cancer; obesity. Because the risk of prostate cancer increases in obese people who eat foods high in cholesterol.
DOES NOT INDICATE!
The most disadvantageous condition of prostate cancer is that it does not show symptoms in the early period. However, it becomes evident in the future. In the advanced stage, the size of the tumor blocks the flow of urine. The patient consults the doctor because he urinates with difficulty. In addition, blood in the urine and semen is also considered among the symptoms. If prostate cancer has spread to the bone, patients may also experience bone pain.
CONTROL IS ESSENTIAL FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS!
The lack of symptoms in the early stages of prostate cancer leads to the detection of advanced stages, which increases the risk of death. But detecting prostate cancer risk early and starting treatment saves lives. prof. Dr. Ali Rıza Kural gives the following information about who should start checking and when: “For early diagnosis, routine examinations should be started after the age of 50. However, if the father or a close relative from the father’s side has prostate cancer, the risk increases. For this reason, it is very important for these people to start routine examinations between the ages of 40-45 for early diagnosis.”
RISK DETECTED FROM BLOOD
For the screening test that determines the risk of prostate cancer, only blood donation is sufficient. A blood analysis called PSA, or Prostate Specific Antigen, is performed. This test is a screening test that gives an idea of whether there is a risk, not for a definitive result. A high age-specific PSA value or the rate of increase over the years creates suspicion of cancer. Experts also perform a rectal examination, and the presence of stiffness in the examination is a signal for the suspicion of cancer, regardless of the PSA value.
ADVANCED TECHNIQUE IS REQUIRED FOR FINAL DIAGNOSIS
The most important examination in the diagnosis of prostate cancer is Multiparametric Prostate MRI. In this MRI, a high-resolution photo of the prostate is taken. It can show the suspected cancer area as well as being used to reach the desired location in targeted biopsy (MR-TRUS fusion biopsy). Thus, there is no need for unnecessary repetitive biopsy as in the past.
BIOPSY IS DONE WITH MILLIMETRIC PRECISION
Biopsy for the definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer is an important method to prevent unnecessary surgeries. First of all, there are suspicious areas of tumor in the prostate, and pathological examination is performed by taking samples from there. In the new method known as “MR-TRUS fusion biopsy”, which has been applied in recent years, the suspicious point can be reached directly with millimeter precision. MRI images taken previously from the patient are used during the procedure. The images are overlaid with transrectal ultrasonography images. Thanks to a kind of navigation method, the biopsy needle is directed to the suspicious point. Thus, a biopsy is taken from the suspicious spot with millimetric deviation.
NOT EVERY HEIGHT IN PSA IS CAUSED BY CANCER
Not all PSA elevations mean the presence of prostate cancer; because prostate inflammation can also increase PSA. Multiparametric prostate MRI, especially taken when inflammation is thought to be present, can reveal cancer-like images. Therefore, in case of doubt, MRI should be taken at least 8-10 weeks later. A similar situation can be observed in patients with chronic prostatitis. However, an experienced radiologist can distinguish them with images taken in different phases.
DIFFERENT TREATMENTS ARE APPLIED
Different methods are used in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. In patients who are clinically detected but not considered to be at risk for cancer progression, without the need for any treatment, with the method called “Active Monitoring”; It is followed by intermittent PSA measurements and MRI scans. If the tumor has not spread to other organs and is limited to the prostate only, surgical methods are preferred in patients with detected tumors in the examinations. While cancer is operated with robotic surgery in young patients, radiosurgery, that is, radiation therapy, is applied instead of surgery in older patients. In advanced-stage cancers that have spread to other organs, treatments such as hormones and chemotherapy are performed according to the patient’s condition.